But if you think the time is right for an Apple-Dow marriage, don’t check your mailbox for a wedding invitation. Apple, which redefined how people listen to music and reinvented the cellphone, is simply too hot for the Dow.
In 2009, when a bankrupt General Motors and a hobbled Citigroup were booted from the Dow and Apple was talked about as one replacement, Apple stock traded at about $144.
On Wednesday, it closed at $569. Because of how the Dow is calculated, Apple would dwarf the other stocks in the average and distort the Dow from its purpose — which is to reflect the broad economy, not represent the hottest stocks.
A big one-day gain by Apple, like a $50 jump after it reported blockbuster earnings last month, would send the Dow higher by hundreds of points. Similarly, a big drop would suggest the market was in more trouble than it really was.
The Dow comprises 30 stocks. It is weighted so that a $1 move by any stock, no matter how cheap or expensive, moves the average the same — about seven and a half points as the Dow is calculated today.
Because it’s much easier for a $100 stock to move $1 than it is for a $20 stock, higher-priced stocks carry more importance. IBM, at about $200, is the most expensive stock and carries nearly 12 percent of the Dow’s weight.
Apple would carry a quarter or more, depending on which stock it replaced. That is why the Dow would be thousands of points higher if it had welcomed Apple in 2009: Each share of Apple has grown by hundreds of dollars since then.
“It wouldn’t be the Dow Jones industrial average,” says Nicholas Colas, chief market strategist at ConvergEx Group. “It would be the Apple Plus Some Other Stuff Index.”
Apple is already the biggest component of the other two major U.S. stock indexes: It makes up nearly 12 percent of the Nasdaq composite and more than 4 percent of the Standard & Poor’s 500.
The Dow was born in 1896 and has changed over the years to reflect the changing economy. Agricultural and coal companies have been replaced by banks and drug companies. Car makers have knocked off railroads.
Of the Dow’s 12 original stocks, only General Electric is still part of the index. So why not add Apple, which has enormous cultural pull and admiration throughout corporate America — plus a market value of half a trillion dollars?
“We don’t run the Dow as we would an investment portfolio,” says John Prestbo, the executive editor of Dow Jones Indexes, which maintains the Dow and other indexes.